Urology Cochin

Urology Online is an initiative by the experts from the field of Urology to bring better information about urological diseases and conditions for the benefit of general public with a lot of scientific inputs for the scientific community. Studies in India show an alarming increase in the number of reported cases of different urological ailments and conditions. This website takes into account the common & rare conditions that contribute to sexual dysfunction and also congenital problems that might become cause of problems in future. A panel of dieticians have helped us to guide you to better health with better eating habits. We hope that public benefits with this site content.





The packet of enzymes in a normal sperm's head that allows the sperm to dissolve a hole in the outer coating around the egg, which allows the sperm to penetrate and fertilize the egg.


Simply put, anaemia is the inability of red blood cells to carry oxygen to different parts of the body. It usually means low Haemoglobin levels. Anaemia might also arise out of certain diseases and disorders.


Chemicals made by the body to fight or attack foreign substances entering the body. Normally they prevent infection; however, when they attack the sperm or fetus, they can cause infertility.


An antibody directed against cardiolipin. These are one of the antiphospholipid groups of antibodies. Approximately 80% of patients who have an antiphospholipid antibody problem will test positive for anticardiolipin antibodies, but the remaining 20% will test positive for one of the other six antiphospholipid antibodies.

Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APA)

The acquired autoantibodies to negatively charged phospholipids found in approximately 15% of patients diagnosed with recurrent pregnancy loss. A positive test indicates that a woman's blood clots too fast, cutting off support to the fetus.

Antisperm Antibodies

Antibodies made by either the man or the woman that can attach to sperm and inhibit movement of sperm or fertilization. Antibodies are frequently positive in men who have had vasectomies and vasectomy reversals, or testicular injuries.

Artificially Stimulated Ejaculation

Controlled electrical stimulation to induce ejaculation in a man with damage to the nerves that control ejaculation.

Assisted Hatching

It refers to thinning out the zona pellucida (The protective outer membrane surrounding the egg) prior to transferring the embryo into the uterus.

Basal Body Temperature Test (BBT)

The temperature of the woman taken every morning during a menstrual cycle prior to any activity. It may help to determine whether or not ovulation is occurring.


A fragment of tissue removed for study under the microscope. Endometrial and testicular tissues are often removed for study.


An embryo developed for five days after fertilization has two different cell types and a central cavity. The surface cells (trophectoderm) will become the placenta, and the inner cell mass will become the fetus. A healthy blastocyst should hatch from the zona pellucida by the end of the sixth day.

Cannulation for tubal blockage

The insertion of a cannula to attempt to dilate a blockage of the tube at the site where the uterus connects to the tube.

Cervical Mucus

Mucus produced by the cervix that permits passage of sperm from the vagina into the uterus. Cervical mucus may assist in preventing infections and usually thins around ovulation to aid in sperm transport.


A type of bacterial organism that is frequently transmitted sexually between partners or from an infected mother to her newborn child; the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease (venereal disease). A leading cause of tubal damage in women and men

Corpus luteum

A special gland formed on the surface of the ovary following ovulation which produces progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is necessary to prepare the uterine lining for implantation by a fertilized egg.


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects the whole body, if left untreated and unmanaged. In Type I diabetes the body produces nil or next to nil insulin (secreted from Pancreas to control sugar level). In Type II the pancreas produces some insulin but still the absorption of glucose does not conform to the desired levels. Gestational Diabetes is when some women become diabetic during pregnancy (about 4%).

Dilatation and curettage

An operation that involves stretching the cervical opening to scrape out the uterus.

Donor Insemination (artificial Insemination)

The placement of sperm from a donor which has been washed free of seminal fluid into the uterine cavity.

Egg donation

The act of donating eggs to someone else for use in attempting pregnancy through in vitro fertilization. Donors may be either compassionate (known to recipient) or anonymous.

Ejaculatory Duct Reconstruction

Surgical procedure to repair the male ducts that contract with orgasm to cause ejaculation in order to restore the ability to ejaculate sperm.


A special type of ovarian cyst that is chocolate in color and contains endometrial cells that grows and bleeds during menstruation. Endometiomas are associated with severe endometriosis.


A class of female sex hormones produced mainly by the ovaries from the onset of puberty and continuing until menopause. They are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Fallopian Tube

Hollow tubes through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle. Sperm normally meet the egg in the fallopian tube, the site at which fertilization usually occurs.

Follicular phase

The pre-ovulatory phase of a woman's cycle during which the follicle grows and high estrogen levels cause the uterine lining to proliferate.

Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)

Combining eggs and sperm outside of the body and immediately placing them into the fallopian tubes to achieve fertilization.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

The hormone produced and released by the hypothalamus that controls the pituitary gland's production and release of gonadotropins.

Guillain - Barre Syndrome

GBS is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), a disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. Ascending paralysis, weakness beginning in the feet and hands and migrating towards the trunk, is the most typical symptom.

Hamster test

A test of the ability of a man's sperm to penetrate a hamster egg stripped of its outer membrane, the zona pellucida, also called Hamster Zona-Free Ovum (HZFO) Test or Sperm Penetration Assay (SPA).

Hemizona assay

A laboratory test of the ability of sperm to penetrate into a human egg; first the egg is split in half, then one half is tested against the husband's sperm and the other half against sperm from a fertile man.


A hernia is a condition which occurs when a muscle or organ protrudes out of the through the wall of the cavity that contains it. Most herniae occur in abdomen.

High Risk Pregnancies

Women with a history of diabetes or other metabolic disorders, multiple abortions, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV+ or psychological trauma are susceptible to high risk pregnancies.


Excessive production of androgens in women, frequently a cause of hirsutism and also associated with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Hyperprolactinemia


Commonly known as high blood pressure it is elevated systemic arterial blood pressure. Keeping in control is amust to keep other problems at bay like cardiac problems.


Hyperthyroidism is a condition of overproduction of sections from thyroid gland. This leads to many complicated diseases and conditions like Grave's disease, thyrotoxicosis, infertility etc, if left untreated.

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)

An x-ray procedure in which a special dye is injected into the uterus through a tube placed through the cervix to illustrate the inner contour of the uterus and the degree of openness of the fallopian tubes.

Immune system

The body's defense against any injury or invasion by a foreign substance or organism.


Attachment of the fertilized egg to the uterine lining, usually occurring five to seven days after ovulation.


Complete or partial inability to achieve an erection.


Inability of a couple to achieve a pregnancy or to carry a pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected sexual relations. For a woman over 35 years of age, infertility should be investigated after attempting to achieve a pregnancy for 6 months.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

A micromanipulation procedure where a single sperm is injected into the egg to enable fertilization with very low sperm counts or with non-motile sperm.

Kidney stones

One of the most common problems, Kidney stones and gall bladder stones are painful. In a normal healthy person, impurities are flushed out as urine. But in some, it isn’t and forms crystals in the kidney, ureter or gall bladder. These crystals or calculi are the stones.

Klinefelter's syndrome

A chromosome abnormality that prevents normal male sexual development and causes irreversible infertility due to the presence of an extra female (X) chromosome. In some cases pregnancies may be achieved by the retrieval of sperm via biopsy of the testicles and fertilization of eggs by ICSI combined with IVF.

Laparoscopy (LAP)

The surgical visual examination of the pelvic organs (ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes) through the use of a small telescope called a laparoscope. The abdominal cavity is inflated with carbon dioxide and a fiberoptic instrument is placed through the navel and through entry sites in the lower quadrants.

Live birth per cycle rate

Shows the percentage of cycles started that resulted in a live birth (a delivery of one or more living babies). This rate is the one many people are most interested in when considering ART because it represents the average chances of having a live-born infant by using ART.

Live birth per egg retrieval rate

The percentage of cycles in which eggs were retrieved that resulted in a live birth. It is generally higher than the live birth per cycle rate because it excludes those cycles that were canceled before egg retrieval was carried out.

Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)

Using microsurgery to remove sperm from the epididymis for use in in vitro fertilization, often with ICSI.

Non-obstructive Azoospermia

Severely impaired or non-existent sperm production. Some sperm may be found and extracted directly from the testicles.

Obstructive Azoospermia

The result of obstruction in either the upper or lower male reproductive tract (epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles or ejaculatory ducts). Sperm production may be normal but the obstruction is preventing the sperm from being ejaculated.


The female sexual gland that produces eggs and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. There are two ovaries, one on each side of the pelvis, and they are connected to the uterus by the fallopian tubes.

Pelvic Adhesions

Scar tissue occurring in the abdominal cavity, fallopian tubes, or inside the uterus. Adhesions can interfere with the function of the fallopian tube, affecting transport of the egg. Scar tissue in the uterus can interfere with implantation of the embryo in the uterus. Adhesions may result from previous injuries, infections or endometriosis.

Pelvic cavity

The area of the abdomen surrounded by the pelvic bone that contains the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries in women, and the prostate gland and seminal vesicles in men.

Pituitary gland

The endocrine gland at the base of the brain that produces the gonadotropin luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulate the gonads to produce sex cells and hormones.

Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD)

A condition found among women in which increased androgen production causes multiple small cysts to persist on the ovaries. There is an imbalance in the amount of LH and FSH released during the menstrual cycle, resulting in lack of ovulation.

Post-coital test (PCT)

Microscopic examination of a woman's cervical mucus at the fertile time of the cycle to determine the number and motility of sperm following intercourse. A highly controversial test due to lack of predictive value.

Pre term baby

A baby born before 37 weeks of gestation is termed as pre term baby. Those born before 32 weeks need special attention as their internal organs have not developed completely.

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)

A procedure done in conjunction with IVF that allows the selection and transfer of unaffected embryos and avoids the need for terminating an affected pregnancy after diagnosis at later stages of gestation.

Semen analysis

The laboratory examination of semen to check the quality and quantity of sperm. A complete semen analysis includes testing the pH, sperm concentration, motility, linearity, velocity (progression) and morphology. Sperm count is the number of sperm in the ejaculate (when given as the number of sperm per milliliter it is more accurately known as the sperm concentration or sperm density). Morphology involves assessing the shape of sperm and counting the percentage of normal shapes. Motility is the motion, such as the forward swimming motion of health sperm. \r\n


The male reproductive cell that has measurable characteristics such as mobility, density, morphology and viability.


Stent is an artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction. The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow access for surgery.

Surrogate mother

A woman who carries a pregnancy for an infertile couple. A traditional surrogate is artificially inseminated with a man's sperm (the man being the biological father of the child), and the couple adopts the baby at birth. A gestational carrier is a woman who carries a pregnancy achieved after the embryos of the biological parents are transferred into her uterus following IVF.

Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)

A needle biopsy of the testicle used to obtain small amounts of sperm. A small incision is made in the scrotal skin and a spring-loaded needle is fired through the testicle. Usually does not result in enough sperm to freeze for later use.


The primary male sex hormone produced in the testicles. Women also produce small amounts of testosterone.


Triglycerides are a form of fat carried through the bloodstream. Mostly stored as fat cells, only a portion is found in the bloodstream. High triglycerides may be a sign of a lipoprotein problem that contributes to heart disease.

Tubal reversal

Surgery performed to reconnect the two ends fallopian tube (Ducts through which eggs travel to the uterus once released from the follicle. Sperm normally meet the egg in the fallopian tube, the site at which fertilization usually occurs.


Ulcer in strictest sense means a wound caused by broken skin. But people tend to use it synonymously with peptic ulcers( stomach ulcers). Peptic ulcers are ulcers of stomach and duodendum. These sores are generally 1/4 inch to 3/4 inch in diameter.

Unexplained infertility

Means that no cause of infertility was found in either the woman or the man.


The reproductive organ that houses, protects and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus. It is a hollow, muscular structure that is part of the female reproductive tract and is the source of a woman's menses womb.


A tubular passageway in the female connecting the external sex organs with the cervix and uterus; the birth canal.


A collection of varicose veins in the scrotum that causes blood to flow in an abnormal direction. Elevated scrotal heat results, and affects the quality of the sperm.

Varicose Veins

The condition arises when extra blood is pooled in the blood vessels causing it to bulge and become enlarged. It often occurs in legs with long hours of standing. Mild inflammation of ankles is common in patients with varicose veins.


An egg that has been fertilized but not yet divided.

Zygote Intra Fallopian transfer (ZIFT)

In vitro fertilization with a transfer of the zygote into the fallopian tube



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